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~@FOREVER@~
сообщение 24.1.2011, 16:48
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Сразу говорю - текст большой, но перевод нужен срочно crying.gif
Код
From the History of the English language
The ancient inhabitants of Great Britain were the Celts. But only a few their words remained in the language now spoken by the English people. Then Great Britain was occupied by the Romans. The Roman period of British history lasted 456 years.
Then Saxons came and settled down in the land they conquered. These German were the founders of the English nation. Then came other Germanic tribes who settled of different parts of the coast. Among these tribes were people called the Angles. When the Angles and Saxons grew into one they were called anglo-Saxons, or Angles (English). The general name they gave to the country was England. The Saxons as well as the Angles called their speech English.
The Norman conquest of England.
    The conquest of England by the Normans began in 1066 with the battle of Hasting: where English fought against the Normans. The conquest was completed in 1071/ The Normans who conquered England were Vikings or “Northman”, men from North. Some 150 years before the conquest of England they came to a Normandy. There they adopted the Christian faith, and the French language of their new home in France. They became French.
    What did the Norman conquest do to England? It gave it French language after the Norman conquest there were three languages In England.
    There was Latin the language of Church and the language in which all learned men wrote and spoke:  the kings wrote their laws in Latin for some time after the conquest. Then there was French, the language which the Kings and nobles spoke and which many people wrote.
    Finally there was the English languages; many knew two; but most people knew only one. There were some people who understood the French language though they could not speak it. Rich people who owned land – the landowners, often knew French and Latin. But poor people, the peasants did not understand French or Latin. They understood only English. Then, however, came the general use of the English language. About 1350 English became the language of law.
    But the English language when it came into general use was not quite the same as it was before the conquest. The grammar remained, but many words came into it from the French language.

    Great Britain
Great Britian which is formally known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Nothern  Ireland is situated on the British Isles. The British Isles lie to the north-west coast of Europe. They are washed by the North Sea, the Atlantic Ocean and the English Channel of La Machine.
The country consists of four parts: England, Scotland, Wales and Nothern Ireland. The total  land of United Kingdom is 93.027 square miles (240.040 sg. Km.) Its population is about 56 million.
The relief in the south and east is flat. There are mountains in the west but they are not high. There are rivers in Great Britain but they are not large. The Severn and the Shannon are the largest. The Thames is not long but it is deep, so big ocean-going ships can go up the river as far as London.
The climate of the British Isles is humid.  It is moister and more equable than of Central Europe. Strong frosts are rare Due to the moderating influence of the sea and of the Gulf Stream the January temperature is higher (it rarely falls below zero) and July temperature is lower (it rarely exceeds 32*) than in any other country of the same latitude. That is why the British ports are ice-free and is rivers are not frozen throughout the year. There is planet of rain there. As a result, there a thick fogs. The seasons do not differ too sharply from one another. Because of its climate England is a land of gardens and flowers.
Great Britain is a highly industrialized country and today 28 people work in manufacturing, mining and building for every one engaged in  agriculture. Its major industries include iron and steel, engineering, textiles, chemicals and others. Its machine tool industry is situated mainly in the Midlands, south-east, Yorkshire and Nothern Ierland. Production of textile is spread throughout the country.
Britain exports machinery, vehicles, aircraft, electrical apparatus buy it (Britain) relies upon imports of metal and ores, textile raw materials and many other products.
The leading mineral resource of Britain is coal and coal – mining of the most important British industries. North sea oil and gas can also be considered as major mineral resource having a fundamental effect on the economy of Great Britain.
The chief agricultural products of Britain are wheat, barley, potatoes, sugar-beet, milk, beef, mutton and camb. A comparatively high level of agricultural productivity enables Britain to provide about half of the food needs from its own soil, the other half is imported.
The passanger and freight traffic of Great Britain is carried mainly by roads, the use of railways has fallen drastically in the last years.
As to its political system Great Britain is a constitutional monarchy. The power of Queen (now Elizabeth) is limited by Parliament which consist of 2 Houses: the House of Commons and the House of Lords. The prime minister is usually the head of the party, the Lobour party, the Liberal (a small one) and the Communist party.
LONDON

The capital of Great Britain, London, is situated on the banks of the River Thames. It is one of the largest and oldest cities in the world. Modern London covers a great area of several hundred square miles. It represets a number of cities, towns and villages that have during the past centuries grown together of make one vast urban area. London can be divided into four main parts: the West End, the East End, the City and Westminister.
The West End is the part where the rich live. It is a fashionable shopping and entertainment centre with finest theatres, the best hotels, shop and restaurants.
Working class London is centred in the East End where the streets are narrow and dirty and the houses are overcrowded. The people have to live in quite a different world, a world of poverty, unemployment and disease.
The City, the oldest part of London, is the heart of the business and financial life of the country. It is situated round St.Pauls’s Cathedral, designed by Sir Christopher Wren, the famous architect of Great Britain. The Tower, one of the most striking  sights of London, is also situated here. For centuries this fortress was used as a prison. Later it was turned into a Museum of Armor. And it is in the Tower that the Crown Jewels are kept and displayed now.
But the real centre of London is Westminister  - the centre of British administration. Here, on the bank of the River Thames, we can see the Houses of Parliament with its Clock Tower from which the chimes of famous Big Ben are heard all over the British Empire.
Westminister Abbey which stands across the road is the place where Kings and Queens, statesmen, writes, poets and many other famous men if England are buried.
The wide thoroughfare runs northward from the House of Parliament to Trafalgar Square. It is Whitehall. On the left side of it is a little street called Downing Street which is well-known all over the world. For the last 200 years each Prime Minister of England has lived here at Number 10.
The very centre of London is Trafalgar Square. It is famous for its tall Nelson Monument whit the statue of Nelson on the top and four bronze lions at the foot. Mass meetings and demonstrations usually take place in this square.
Not far away is the British Museum, the biggest museum in London with the richest library in the world.
Among other places of interest worth seeing one should mention Hyde Park with Kensington Gardens. Hyde Pak is the greatest People’s Park in Europe. It is also a well-known place for political meetings of different kings.
Schooling in England
Education is compulsory between the ages of 5 and sixteen in England. There are three main types of educational institutions: primary schools, secondary schools and universities.
Primary education includes: nursery for children under five years infants from 5 to 7 or 8. At 7 the pupils are transferred to the primary school. The are stayed there for 4 years and then may be sent to a Secondary Modern, Technical, Grammar or Comprehensive school. The best ones are sent to a Grammar school. The next best to a Technical school and the others to a Modern school.
The Comprehensive school takes in pupils of these three types of schools
The Secondary modern school is attended by about  75% of the pupils of their age-group. The following courses: secretarial, trade and commerce, agriculture, gardening are taught at these schools.
The Secondary Technical school takes in about 5% of the pupils and it gives a general technical education. It serves those pupils who are mechanically inclined.
The Secondary Grammar school gives a five-years course leading to the General Certificate of Education at the ordinary level. On receiving this certificate a pupil may either leave the school or continue his studies for another 2 or 3 years to receive the same certificate but a the advanced level. The Universities usually require from their applicants a few subjects at this level.
The comprehensive school combines the three types of schools. It is therefore a much larger school ranging from 700 to 2000 pupils. There are a few of these schools and they are practically all found in London area.
Part 1 Higher Education
The Structure of higher education in Great Britain is very complex. Four types of institutions – universities, teacher training colleges, colleges of advanced technology and technical colleges – are the main sources of full-time higher education.
A university consists of a number of faculties: medicine, arts, philosophy, Law, Music, Theology, natural sciences, economics, engineering, agriculture, education. The Universities grant their own degrees. The normal duration of a first degree course is 3 years at the end of which a bachelor degree is awarded on the results of examinations. A master degree is usually awarded after a further year or two years study. The highest degree is the doctor of philosophy.
Students of teacher-training colleges take the subjects they intend to teach as main subjects to a standard which approaches that of a pass degree given by Universities.
Part 2 admission to the universities
Admission to the Universities is by examinations and selections. A student who want to go to university usually applies for admission before he takes his advanced level examinations. He must write to the Universities Central Council on admissions. They send him a from which  he has to complete. In this from he has to write down the names of six universities in order of preference. This from is then sent back to the Council. The Council sends photocopies of the from to the universities concerned. Each applicant is considered by the university admission board and then they sent the candidate will be accepted if he fulfills the requirements stated in the offer. The minimum requirement for admission is a pass some subjects at ordinary and advanced levels. The most popular universities also demand higher grades in these subjects.
When the advanced level examination results come out in August, the University admission department sees whether the candidate has fulfilled his conditions. If he has, the department sends him a definite offer.
Universities
Britain’s oldest and most famous universities are Oxford and Cambridge. The date from he 12th century.
In many respects these universities keep-to the traditions of the past but behind the old-fashioned life we find well-equipped laboratories and great libraries. The chief subjects taught at Oxford and Cambridge include ancient languages, philosophy, history, law, theology, medicine, natural sciences and mathematics.
Both universities are the most aristocratic universities if Great Britain and the cost of living there is higher than at any of the others.
London University is also in many ways exceptional. The number of students there is more than 25 000. It comprises, by comparison with either Oxford or Cambridge, a great variety of specialized schools – such as the Institute of Education, South Eastern Agricultural College, London Schools of Economics, and the teaching faculties of various hospitals. Apart from the “infernal” students it has a large number of “external” students. They do not attend lectures at London University but sir for its examinations and take its degrees.
Other English Universities called “modern” or “provincial” exist generally in great centres of industry and population and are frequently linked closely with local requirements for specialists. They are Durham, Manchester, Liverpool, Birmingham, Leeds, Reading, Nottingham, Scotland, Glasgo and Edinburgh.
Besides The traditional university subjects they teach agriculture, applied sciences and engineering.
A university consist of a number of faculties: divinity, medicine, arts, philosophy, law, music, natural sciences, economics, engineering, agriculture, commerce and education.
After three years of study, a student may processed to a Bachelor’s degree and later to the degrees of Master and Doctor.
The academic year in Britain’s Universities is divided into three terms, which usually run from about the beginning of October to the middle of December, from the middle of January to the end of March and from the middle of April to the end of June.
Students are free to prepare for the examinations by attending classes or by private reading. Every college has its own Examining Board. Admission to the universities is by examination and selection. Women are admitted on equal terms with men, but in Cambridge their numbers are limited by statue.
The grants and awards are subjected to consideration of parents means and the number of dependents the family has to support. The awarding board take into account also the results of entrance and terminal examinations of candidates.
Youth Organizations in Great Britain
The most representative youth organization in Great Britain is the British Youth Council. It was founded after the Second World War. Now it unites about fifty youth organizations, student unions, school unions, youth clubs of different types, religious organizations. Since 1976 the  Young Communist League is a member of the British Youth Council.
The highest organ of the British Youth Council is the Congress of representatives of its member organizations which elects the Executive Committee. Until recently the activities of the Council were largely concerned with youth recreation, sports, tourist exchange  and the like The Council also participates in international conferences on the problems of the problems  of the youth’s life and work. Now it is extending its role to national affairs with new aims and problems. Of these the problem of youth unemployment, youth homelessness, democracy in schools are of great importance.
The most representative student organization is the National Union of Students. The National Union of Students has existed since 1922. It is the organization capable of leading the student body and providing the necessary democratic and organizational framework to service it. It responds and adapts to the social and economic trend in the student body.
The youth organizations embrace all classes and sections of the population and reflect practically all trends in political life Mention should be made of the Young Socialists, the National Leagues of Young Liberals and the Young Conservatives.
“The Young Socialists” is the  youth organization of the Labour Party. The first National Conference of the Young Socialists took place in 1962. Now the Young Socialists condemn the policy of cutting social expenditures and imposing restrictions on pay rise while the level of inflation in the country is very high.
The National League of Young Liberals was set up in 1908 to coordinate the youth activities within the Liberal Party. It unites the young people interesting in Liberalism except for the Liberal students at Universities, technical and training colleges who have their own organization called “The Union of Liberal Students”.
The programme  of the National League of Young Liberals does not contain any demands of radical social changes, many of its items are vague and eclectic.
The Youth Movement of the Conservative Party started in 1906 and has at present more than 50 000 members grouped in 1600 branches. Traditionally the Young Conservatives support the policy aimed at the defence of big business , at the limitation of the trade union struggle for better living conditions of workers. As far as the foreign policy is concerned the young Conservatives speak in favour  of further increase of military expenditures and of the more active role of the country in the Nato and the Common Market.
British Society
In the old days, it was easy to talk about British society. There was the working class, the middle class and the southerners. But these days it is harder to describe the British. The old difference are still here, but people are divided in many new ways as well.
One difference is the change in age groups. More people are living longer than 70 or 80 years, so the number of old people is growing (15% of the population is now over 65). At the same time fewer babies are being born (the average British family has two children).  This means that the population of Britain is getting older all the time. Also fewer people live with or near their families. This means that many old people live on their own, or in old people’s homes. And many young people live in bed – sitting rooms, or in flats with other people of the same age. Traditions of work are changing too. About three million people with have job. Poor people these days are not only people with badly paid jobs, but people without a job at all.
The four different regions of the  United Kingdom (England, Scotland, Wales and Nothern Ireland) have always had their own ways of life. But now many people from these regions (especially the Welsh and the Scots) have a new interest in their own special culture. Some Welsh people, for example want to bring back the old Welsh language. Some of the Scots want a government of their own. The people of Nothern Ireland often feel that the rest of Britain is not interested in them. They feel that no one understands the troubles between. Catholic and Protestant that have been going on for so long.
There are now about 4 million “back and brown” Britons, who have come (or whose parents have come) to Britain. Most came from the West India, East Africa, India and Pakistan, and live in big cities like London, Manchester, Birmingham and Liverpool. Some found in Britain the life they were looking for. But many did not. Young people, especially from these ethnic communities find it hard to get jobs and to be accepted.
But somehow, the traditional British way of life still goes on. Old and young, rich and poor, black and white, Londoners and countrymen all agree about some things even they disagree about others, the things they agree about make them British. The things they disagree about make them interesting.
English people are quite reserved. In the tube everyone sits reading their newspapers and no one talks and smiles. London is so international, with so many people from different parts of the world.
Tourism
Every ear more than 11 million tourists visit Britain. In fact tourism is an important industry, employing thousands of people. Most visitors come in summer months, when they can expect good weather. Tourists usually spend a few days in London, then go on to some of the other well known cities. Oxford and Stratford-upon-Avon (birthplace of Shakespeare) are visited most often. But the west with its Roman ruins and beautiful 18th century streets is also very popular. So is York, the oldest city in the north, and Edinburgh, the capital of Scots.
The main tourist centres are crowed with coaches and ice cream sellers. But in the quiet country areas, there are many interesting places few tourists find. (Some like the old yellow stone villages of the Cotswolds in central England). But there are beautiful  villages in other places of the country too. In the typical English villages the cottages crowd round an old church which is often full of history. And nearby there might be a big old house, once lived in by the “squire” and his family, now open to the public. There are no coach tours of hotels here. Visitors go to the houses with the “Bed and Breakfast” signs. It’s more fun-and much cheaper-to stay with a British Family.
Perhaps the least visited places in Britain are the old industrial towns. But many people think that 10th century cities, like Manchester, Liverpool, Birmingham and Glasgo show the real Britain. The greatness of the past is still to be seen in their old streets and squares. But their golden age of industrial wealth is over. They have serious difficulties with unemployment and bad housing. Some buildings are waiting to be pulled down. The cheap concrete buildings of the 1960 are old and dirty. But for the adventurous tourist these cities are full of life and colour. Local pop groups play in busy pubs. The plays in their theatres are often as good as those in London.

Sights of London
London is a city which was never planned. It has accumulated. Its component boroughs seem self – contained and unrelated to each other. Nevertheless London has a charm of its own and it is certain that the stranger-English or foreign-must be initially bewildered by his first sight of London.
Trafalgar Square is a good starting point for any tour of London. It was laid out about a hundred years ago and was so named to commemorate Nelson’s victory at the Battle of Trafalgar and the monument in the centre, known as Nelson’s column is surmounted with a statue of Nelson 16 feet high. The height of the monument is 184 feet 10 inches. Its pedestal is decorated with bas-reliefs of famous naval battles. At the base of Nelson’s column are four great lions. Trafalgar square has become famous as a rallying point for all kinds of demonstrations and also for London’s pigeons.
Commencing from Tratalgar Square go down White-Hall The name of this wide and fine-looking street dates back to the 12th century. At that time there was a palace there where the English kings lived.
Today, Whitehall is the street of Government offices. With the Simple and impressive Cenotaph, The memorial to the men who dies in the two World Wars. If one comes along down Whitehall one can see Admiralty Arch on the right and the broad road – the Mall leading to Buckingham Palace. The palace has been the London Residence of every British Sovereign since 1837. British House as it was originally called was built in 1702 – 1705 for John Sheffild, Duke of Buckingham. The faГ§ade is an addition of 1913 by sir Astern Wirth. The large monument in front of the palace is the Queen Victoria memorial, also by sir Astom Wirth. A favourite time to come and see Buckingham Palace is 10.30 a.m., the time of changing of the guard. The public is admitted to the Royal Museum to see the Royal horses and coaches and the Queen’s gallery.
A quiet little street on the right is Downing Street. Its was named after its builder sir George Downing. For the last 200 years at number 10 each prime Minister of England gas lived there. Next door, at №11 lives the chancellor of the Exchequer. At the end of Whitehall there is Parliament Square with the Houses of Parliament. It is a beautiful building with two towers and a very big clock called. Big Ben. The best view of the Houses of Parliament is from Westminister Bridge. The H. Of P.  stretches for about 1000 feet. Big Ben is the name of the Bell housed in the 320 foot of one hundred meter clock tower of the palace. It is the biggest bell ever cast in England. The bell weight 13/2 tons and considered to be one of the finest time-keepers in the world. The House of the Parliament was built on the site of the ancient palace of Westminister  which was royal Residence from the time of Edward the Confessor until Whitehall palace form was given to Henry YIII.


Сообщение отредактировал ~@FOREVER@~ - 24.1.2011, 16:49
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Vyse
сообщение 25.1.2011, 12:48
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ты бы мотивировал. за спасибо никто такую простыню переводить не будет.
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Fantaser
сообщение 25.1.2011, 23:46
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язык простой. даже промт переведет на троечку
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Peter
сообщение 27.1.2011, 22:02
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в инете море переводчиков....
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